Tie a balloon on your website and head for the clouds of Amazon

Last week I packed up the handwritten html pages, images, and bits hosted on my home netbook server and moved up into the cloud.

Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) added the capability of hosting a static website (a website built on files as opposed to a database) and made it very cheap to get started and very easy to scale up bandwidth and storage as required.

This is how I did it in 5 steps ...

Step 0 — Sign up for Amazon Web Services (AWS) Free Usage Tier

AWS has created a free 12-month introductory offer to try out their various services. Amazon S3 includes 5 GB storage, 20,000 Get Requests and 2,000 Put Requests for hosting your website. You pay for anything that exceeds those limits.

Step 1 — Create an Amazon S3 website-enabled bucket

S3 uses buckets (think folders) that act as containers for your static files. Create a new website-enabled bucket to hold your website files.

Make sure when creating the S3 bucket to give it the name www.YOURWEBSITE.TLD. For example, this website uses an S3 bucket with the name www.circuidipity.com.

The endpoint address for your newly-created S3 bucket will be http://www.YOURWEBSITE.TLD.s3-website-location.amazonaws.com (my endpoint is http://www.circuidipity.com.s3-website-us-east-1.amazonaws.com).

Step 2 - Set public permissions on S3 bucket

At this stage your website-enabled bucket and contents are only viewable over the web by their owner ... you.

Add a bucket policy to make your files publicly available. In the AWS Management Console, right-click on your website bucket and select Properties->Permissions->Edit bucket policy and create a new policy ...

        "Version": "2008-10-17",
        "Statement": [
                        "Sid": "PublicReadForGetBucketObjects",
                        "Effect": "Allow",
                        "Principal": {
                                "AWS": "*"
                        "Action": "s3:GetObject",
                        "Resource": "arn:aws:s3:::<strong>your_website_bucket_name</strong>/*"

Now any files placed in your bucket will be world-readable.

Step 3 — Upload website files

Start your website by creating 2 files ... index.html and a custom 404 error document doesnotexist.html. Use the AWS Management Console to upload the files into your S3 bucket and test by browsing to http://YOURBUCKET.s3-location.amazonaws.com/ .

For uploading multiple files in one great swoop I ran across s3cmd ... a cool Linux command line utility for managing S3 storage. A package is available for Debian sudo apt-get install s3cmd.

Before configuring s3cmd to grant access to your website's S3 bucket you require your Access Key ID and Secret Access Key. Navigate to https://aws-portal.amazon.com and the -> Security Credentials -> Access Keys tab and make note of your Amazon S3 keys.

Now run ...

$ s3cmd --configure    # configuration saved to '/home/<em>user</em>/.s3cfg'

s3cmd has lots of options ... but especially cool is the sync command. Its similar to rsync and uses md5 checksum and filesize to compare files between localhost and your remote S3 bucket and only transfer files that have changed.

For my own website I run ...

$ s3cmd sync --dry-run output/ s3://www.circuidipity.com/   # first I test it out ... nothing is transferred
$ s3cmd sync output/ s3://www.circuidipity.com/

Step 4 - Configure DNS

To transform s3-website-location.amazonaws.com into www.YOURWEBSITE.com you need to create a CNAME at your DNS provider that maps www to your S3 bucket ... in my case DNS is provided by GoDaddy and I map www to www.circuidipity.com.s3-website-us-east-1.amazonaws.com.

s3-website-us-east-1.amazonaws.com is for accessing the website feature. If you just want S3 you can use s3.amazonaws.com.

Allow a bit of time for your changes to propagate through the global network of DNS servers ... check your modifications by running host (cool little DNS hookup utility) ...

$ host www.circuidipity.com
www.circuidipity.com is an alias for www.circuidipity.com.s3-website-us-east-1.amazonaws.com.
www.circuidipity.com.s3-website-us-east-1.amazonaws.com is an alias for s3-website-us-east-1.amazonaws.com.
s3-website-us-east-1.amazonaws.com has address

So CNAME www is working ... dy-naaa-MITE! But a CNAME cannot point to a naked domain (circuidipity.com).

There are a few different ways to do a naked domain redirect. I chose to use a free service provided by wwwizer.com ... simply point your A record (on GoDaddy and other registrars sometimes represented by the @ symbol) to and it will be redirected to the same domain with www placed in front.

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