Virtualbox

  Last modified on Tuesday 28 March 2017

Virtualbox is virtualization software that allows a Linux user to HOST multiple GUEST operating systems as virtual machines (VMs). Its a cool tool for playing with different Linux distros and experimenting with configurations.

Let's go!

In this HOWTO I install Virtualbox on a 64-bit Ubuntu HOST and create an Ubuntu GUEST virtual machine.

0. Install VirtualBox on HOST

$ sudo apt install build-essential dkms module-assistant linux-headers-$(uname -r)
$ sudo apt install virtualbox virtualbox-dkms virtualbox-qt

Virtualbox kernel modules are built via Dynamic Kernel Module Support (DKMS). After installing the virtualbox packages the vbox modules should be auto-built and -loaded:

$ lsmod | grep vbox
vboxpci                19066  0
vboxnetadp             13155  0
vboxnetflt             23571  0
vboxdrv               190057  4 vboxnetflt,vboxnetadp,vboxpci

I add my USERNAME to the vboxusers group:

$ sudo adduser USERNAME vboxusers

1. Create the Ubuntu GUEST

Default Machine Folder where VM images are stored is ~/Virtualbox VMs (this can be modified in File->Preferences->General).

See the User Manual for creating a GUEST virtual machine. I use the mini.iso installer to create a new virtual machine with a minimal system configuration.

2. GUEST additions

Guest Additions provide extra features such as the ability to tweak display settings and add a shared folder that can accessed by both HOST and GUEST machines.

Install on the new Ubuntu GUEST:

$ sudo apt install build-essential module-assistant linux-headers-$(uname -r) dkms
$ sudo apt install virtualbox-guest-{dkms,utils,x11}
$ sudo m-a prepare
$ sudo adduser USERNAME vboxsf

If the virtualbox modules need to be rebuilt for any reason for the running kernel:

$ uname -r | sudo xargs -n1 /usr/lib/dkms/dkms_autoinstaller start

Reboot GUEST and vbox drivers should now be loaded:

$ lsmod | grep vbox
vboxguest
vboxsf
vboxvideo

3. Extra configuration

3.1 Display

Tweak display settings by going to the Virtualbox Machine->Settings...->Display setting and move the slider to add more video memory and enable 3d acceleration.

Display Settings

With VirtualBox guest additions the display and resolution can be changed when running X:

$ ps aux | grep VBox
/usr/sbin/VBoxService
/usr/bin/VBoxClient --clipboard
/usr/bin/VBoxClient --display
/usr/bin/VBoxClient --seamless

If GUEST does not use a graphical login manager to launch its desktop then modify $HOME/.xinitrc to start VBoxClient services:

VBoxClient --clipboard &
VBoxClient --display &
VBoxClient --seamless &

3.2 Console

Ubuntu GUEST in console mode defaults to a small 80x40 window. Resize by rebooting GUEST and:

  • GRUB screen: hit c to enter command mode
  • grub>: run vbeinfo to display supported resolutions (example: 1152x864)
  • /etc/default/grub: add ...
    • GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT="nomodeset"
    • GRUB_GFXMODE=1152x864
    • GRUB_GFXPAYLOAD_LINUX=keep (Helpful!)
  • save changes: run update-grub and reboot

3.3 Shared folder

Create a shared folder on HOST. Make it accessible to GUEST by going to Machine->Settings...->Shared Folders and click Add Shared Folder and Auto-Mount.

Shared Folder Settings

3.4 SSH from HOST to GUEST

Host-only networking with Virtualbox was a big help getting this properly configured.

Scenario: I want to SSH from my HOST to GUEST. Default configuration supplies GUEST with a NAT interface for internet access but no HOST<->GUEST connectivity. A solution for local access is creating a host-only adapter.

Host

Navigate to Virtualbox's File->Preferences->Network, select Host-only Networks, click Adds new host-only network to create vboxnet0. Default setup is interface address 192.168.56.1 with DHCP enabled.

Select the GUEST VM and in Machine->Settings->Network click on Adapter 2, enable network adapter attached to Host-only Adapter, and select vboxnet0.

Guest

Boot the VM and confirm the new interface has been created. Add the interface to /etc/network/interfaces (example: enp0s8) ...

auto enp0s8
iface enp0s8 inet dhcp

Install the SSH server ...

$ sudo apt install openssh-server

Reboot GUEST. The second interface has been assigned address 192.168.56.101 by DHCP and can now be accessed from HOST via SSH.

Optional: Assign GUEST a static address outside the range of the Virtualbox DHCP server (101-254 by default) ...

allow-hotplug enp0s8
#iface enp3s0 inet dhcp
iface enp0s8 inet static
address 192.168.56.50
netmask 255.255.255.0
network 192.168.56.0
broadcast 192.168.56.255

... and modify /etc/hosts on HOST by adding the VM static address.

Happy hacking!

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